PatSeer

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CAPTURING AND STORING CO2 FROM EXHAUST GASES
Pub. No. IN201711004806A
App. No. IN201711004806
App. No. Original IN201711004806
Appl. Date 10-Feb-2017
Pub. Date 17-Aug-2018
Inventor(s) DR BIKRAMPAL KAUR, ER AMANDEEP SINGH BAINS, SHUBHAM MAHAJAN, SAKSHAM BHAGI
Assignee Norm. CHANDIGARH GROUP OF COLLEGES CGC (LANDRAN KHARAR BANUR HIGHWAY SECTOR 112 LANDRAN SAHIBZADA AJIT SINGH NAGAR PUNJAB 140307 PUNJAB INDIA, IN)
Current Assignee CHANDIGARH GROUP OF COLLEGES CGC (LANDRAN KHARAR BANUR HIGHWAY SECTOR 112 LANDRAN SAHIBZADA AJIT SINGH NAGAR PUNJAB 140307 PUNJAB INDIA, IN)
Current Owner CHANDIGARH GROUP OF COLLEGES CGC
IPC F01M9/10
ABSTRACT
The invention relates to a system and method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles, system comprising; a muffler for allowing exhaust gases to enter; a catalytic converter to convert harmful gases to CO2, H2O and NO2; at least two cylinders to separate carbon dioxide from other gases and at least one cylinder for storing carbon dioxide under pressure; and an artificial green house to convert stored carbon dioxide to oxygen. The method comprises the steps of :allowing exhaust gases to enter muffler ; converting exhaust gases to CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively using a catalytic convertor ; passing the resultant mixture through at least two cylinders; separating carbon dioxide from gases (N2 and H2O) through hydrate separation method; storing carbon dioxide retrieved d in at least one cylinder; and dumping stored carbon dioxide into artificial green house for converting CO2 to O2.

CLAIMS

1. A system for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles, comprising ; - a muffler 5 for allowing exhaust gases to enter; - a catalytic converter, wherein said convertor converts harmful gases(carbon monoxide; hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide ) to CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively; - at least two cylinders associated to said catalytic convertor, wherein said cylinders separate carbon dioxide from other gases and at least one cylinder for storing said carbon dioxide under pressure; and - an artificial green house 7 installed at a fuel filling station, wherein said house aloows conversion of said stored carbon dioxide to oxygen.

2. The system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein said exhaust gases after passing through said muffler comes down to a temperature of 500-550 degree Celsius.

3. The system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein said exhaust gases and after passing through the cooling chamber 2 cools down to a temperature of 10-20 degree Celsius.

4. The system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein said system also comprises of a coolant chamber 3 , wherein various coolants are mixed to cool the air; a pressure adjusting valve 4 used to pressurized the air at a high pressure upto 3MPa and fed it into the chamber; a mixing chamber 5 that allows mixing of high pressure gas and water takes place; a Second chamber 7 in which the carbonates are distorted and Co2 is released.

5. The system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the separated CO2 is stored in a 10 litre cylinder attached at the bottom of the cars with a safety valve.

6. The system as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the electrochemical-catalytic converter comprises a cell module (10), wherein nitrogen oxides are decomposed to form nitrogen through electrochemical promotion, and carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulate matter are catalyzed to form carbon dioxide and water by an oxidation catalyst.

7. The method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using catalytic convertor as claimed in Claims 1-5, comprising the steps of : a. allowing exhaust gases (carbon monoxide; hydro carbons and nitrogen oxide) released from vehicular emission to enter said muffler and reduce the noise intensity of said gases; b. converting said gases of step a to CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively using a catalytic convertor resulting in a mixture of gases; c. passing the resultant mixture of step b through at least two cylinders; d. separating carbon dioxide from gases (N2 and H2O) through hydrate separation method; e. storing carbon dioxide retrieved in step d in at least one cylinder; and f. dumping stored carbon dioxide into said artificial green house for converting CO2 to O2.


DESCRIPTION
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of environmental protection, in particular the invention relates to an eco friendly system and method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using a catalytic convertor, thereby protecting the environment from excessive global warming.



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



Rapid economic growth has contributed to today?s ever increasing demand for energy. An obvious consequence of this is an increase in the use of fuels, particularly conventional fossil fuels (i.e. coal, oil and natural gas) that have become key energy sources since the industrial revolution. However, the abundant use of fossil fuels has become a cause of concern due to their adverse effects on the environment, particularly related to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG).

Today the main problem existing in the world is about untimely climatic changes due to abrupt increase in global warming. Global warming and climate change concerns have triggered global efforts to reduce the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is considered a crucial strategy for meeting CO2 emission reduction targets.

Global warming is due to emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and methane (CH.sub.4). About a quarter of global human-originated CO.sub.2 emissions are currently estimated to come from mobile sources, i.e., automobiles, trucks, buses and trains that are powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE). This proportional contribution is likely to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future with the projected surge in automobile and truck ownership in developing countries.

The existing product/process, the emission of excessive CO2 leads to environment degradation, wherein due to excessive emission of CO2 by vehicles, environment is more prone to different types of disasters like ozone depletion, melting of glaciers etc. which will further aggravate if not controlled at this stage. Uncontrolled emission of CO2 in atmosphere causes many problems like difficulty in breathing, bad effects on skin etc.

Those that address the problem of reducing CO.sub.2 emissions from mobile sources employ combustion using oxygen, provide no means for the regeneration and reuse of the CO.sub.2 capture agent, and/or make no use of waste heat recovered from the hot source. Combustion using only oxygen requires oxygen-nitrogen separation which is more energy-intensive than separating CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases and the separation problem would be made even more difficult if attempted on board the vehicle.

US 9,297,285A method and system are described for on-board treatment of an exhaust stream containing CO.sub.2 emitted by a hydrocarbon-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) used to power a vehicle in order to reduce the amount of CO.sub.2 discharged into the atmosphere which include: a. a first waste heat recovery zone on board the vehicle for receiving the high temperature exhaust gas stream in heat exchange relation and discharging the exhaust stream at a lower temperature, the waste heat recovery zone further including at least one heat exchanger and/or heat recovery device with an inlet for receiving the hot exhaust gas stream from the ICE for passage in heat exchange relation and an outlet for the cooled exhaust gas stream, the heat exchanger further including an inlet for receiving a heat exchange fluid at a first temperature and an outlet for discharging the fluid at a second higher temperature, the heat recovery device including power transmission means; b. a densification zone in fluid communication with the exhaust gas stream discharge outlet from the first waste heat recovery zone, the densification zone including means for reducing the temperature and volume of the CO.sub.2 to at least liquefy the CO.sub.2, and to produce a treated exhaust gas stream of reduced CO.sub.2 content; c. a separation zone in communication with the densification zone and having a discharge outlet for the treated exhaust stream; d. storage zone for receiving the densified CO.sub.2 for temporary storage on board the vehicle; and e. an exhaust gas conduit in fluid communication with the treated exhaust gas stream outlet from the separation zone.

The above citation mentions of capturing of carbon dioxide, however it does not explicitly talk about the presence of cylinder for storing carbon dioxide.

Prior art methods that address the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mobile sources employ combustion using oxygen, provide no means for the regeneration and reuse of the carbon dioxide capture agent, and/or make no use of waste heat recovered from the hot source.

The capture of carbon dioxide from mobile sources has generally been considered too expensive, since it involves a distributed system with a reverse economy of scale. The solution to the problem has appeared to be impractical due to on-board vehicle space limitations, the additional energy and apparatus requirements and the dynamic nature of the vehicle's operating cycle.

Accordingly, it is necessary to provide a technique to reduce the CO2 gas from the atmosphere as much as possible to control the continuously degrading conditions of the environment. There exists a need to develop an eco friendly system and method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using a catalytic convertor, thereby protecting the environment from global warming.



Said system comprises of a safety valve; catalytic convertor; cylinder and artificial green house.



OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

The principal object of the present invention is to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art.



An object of the present invention is to provide an eco friendly system and method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using a catalytic convertor, thereby protecting the environment from global warming.



Another object of the present invention is to provide an eco friendly system and method that can control pollution through CO2 conversion at a very large rate i.e. changing about 80,000 to 90,000 liters of CO2 into useful O2 via the artificial green houses.

Another object of the present invention is to provide an eco friendly system and method that can absorb maximum amount of CO2 ejected by the vehicles.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an eco friendly system and method that can make the environment cleaner and promote artificial farming.

Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an eco friendly system and method separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using a catalytic convertor which is simple, highly durable, easy to manufacture and more effective.

The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become readily apparent upon further review of the following detailed description of the preferred embodiment as illustrated in the accompanying drawings.



ADVANTAGES OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

1. Reduces the amount of Co2 greatly from the atmosphere.

2. Helps in reducing the depletion rate of ozone layer which effects adversely the climatic conditions.

3. Making the vehicles more eco-friendly.

4. Improving the environment conditions and more suitable for living.



SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to an eco friendly system and method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using a catalytic convertor, thereby protecting the environment from global warming.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the system for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles, comprises of ;

- a muffler for allowing exhaust gases to enter;

- a catalytic converter for converting harmful gases like carbon monoxide; hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide into CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively;

- at least two cylinders associated to said catalytic convertor for separating the CO2 from other gases and at least one cylinder storing said carbon dioxide under pressure; and

- an artificial green house, wherein said house installed at a fuel filling station converts said stored carbon dioxide to oxygen.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, the method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using catalytic convertor, comprises the steps of :

a. allowing exhaust gases released from vehicular emission to enter the muffler and reduce the noise intensity of said gases;

b. converting said gases of step a (carbon monoxide; hydro carbons and nitrogen oxide) into CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively using a catalytic convertor resulting in a mixture of gases;

c. passing the resultant mixture of step b through two small cylinders;

d. separating CO2 from other gases (N2 and H2O) via hydrate separation method.

e. storing carbon dioxide retrieved in step d in a cylinder of high capacity; and

f. dumping stored carbon dioxide into the artificial green house for converting CO2 to O2.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, the separated CO2 is stored in a 10 litre cylinder attached at the bottom of the cars with a safety valve.



It will be appreciated that features of the present disclosure are susceptible to being combined in various combinations without departing from the scope of the present disclosure as defined by the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

The summary above, as well as the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments, is better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawing. For the purpose of illustrating the present disclosure, exemplary constructions of the disclosure are shown in the drawing. However, the present disclosure is not limited to specific instrumentalities disclosed herein. Moreover, those in the art will understand that the drawings are not to scale. Wherever possible, like elements have been indicated by identical numbers.

Embodiments of the present disclosure will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the following diagram wherein:

FIG. 1 illustrates a view of the system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 illustrates a view of the method according to an embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As required, detailed embodiments of the present disclosure are disclosed herein; however, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary of the disclosure which may be embodied in various forms. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a basis for the claims and as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present disclosure in virtually any appropriately detailed structure.

Various other objects, advantages, and features of the disclosure will become more readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.

CO2 capture and usage is an eco friendly technique in which the exhaust gases from cars after passing through catalytic converter passed through two small sized chambers to get CO2 separated from N2 and H2O via hydrate separation method. This separated CO2 is then stored in a 10 litre (ltr) cylinder attached at the bottom with a safety valve on it which maintains the suitable pressure inside the cylinder. This stored CO2 at the end of the day is then dumped into an artificial green house employed at each petrol pump which can convert the collected CO2 into useful O2 under suitable conditions provided to the artificial green house.

The purpose of the invention is to secure the nation with a less harmful environment and enhancing the life span of people by utilizing the harmful pollutants ejected in the environment. This would also help in enhancing the artificial farming techniques.

The invention discloses an electrochemical-catalytic converter, which can remove nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and particulate matter (PM) in exhaust gas. The electrochemical-catalytic converter comprises a cell module (10), wherein nitrogen oxides are decomposed to form nitrogen through electrochemical promotion, and wherein carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulate matter are catalyzed to form carbon dioxide and water by an oxidation catalyst.

The system for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles, (Figure 1) comprises of a muffler 1 for allowing exhaust gases to enter; a catalytic converter for converting harmful gases like carbon monoxide; hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide into CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively; at least two cylinders associated to said catalytic convertor for separating the CO2 from other gases and at least one cylinder storing said carbon dioxide under pressure; and an artificial green house 7 , wherein said house installed at a fuel filling station converts said stored carbon dioxide to oxygen.

The exhaust gases after passing through muffler comes down to a temperature of 500-550 C and after passing through the cooling chamber 2 cools down to a temperature of 10-20 C. The system also comprises of a coolant chamber 3 , wherein various coolants are mixed to cool the air; a pressure adjusting valve 4 used to pressurized the air at a high pressure upto 3MPa and fed it into the chamber; mixing chamber 5 that allows mixing of high pressure gas and water takes place; a Second chamber 7 in which the carbonates are distorted and Co2 is released.

The method for separating or capturing carbon dioxide from exhaust gases stream of vehicles using catalytic convertor, comprises the steps of; allowing exhaust gases released from vehicular emission to enter the muffler and reduce the noise intensity of said gases; converting said gases of step a (carbon monoxide; hydro carbons and nitrogen oxide) into CO2, H2O and NO2 respectively using a catalytic convertor resulting in a mixture of gases; passing the resultant mixture of step b through two small cylinders; separating CO2 from other gases (N2 and H2O) via hydrate separation method; storing carbon dioxide retrieved in step d in a cylinder of high capacity; and dumping stored carbon dioxide into the artificial green house for converting CO2 to O2.

A method and system are described for on-board treatment of an exhaust stream containing CO2 emitted by a hydrocarbon-fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) used to power a vehicle in order to reduce the amount of CO2 discharged into the atmosphere which include:

a). A first waste heat recovery zone on board the vehicle for receiving the high temperature exhaust gas stream in heat exchange relation and discharging the exhaust stream at a lower temperature. The waste heat recovery zone further including at least one heat exchanger and/or heat recovery device with an inlet for receiving the hot exhaust gas stream from the ICE for passage in heat exchange relation and an outlet for the cooled exhaust gas stream. The heat exchanger further is including an inlet for receiving a heat exchange fluid at a first temperature and an outlet for discharging the fluid at a second higher temperature. The heat recovery device including power transmission means.

b). A densification zone in fluid communication with the exhaust gas stream discharge outlet from the first waste heat recovery zone, the densification zone includes means for reducing the temperature and volume of the CO2 to at least liquefy the CO2, and to produce a treated exhaust gas stream of reduced CO2 content;

c). A separation zone in communication with the densification zone and having a discharge outlet for the treated exhaust stream;

d). Storage zone for receiving the densified CO2 for temporary storage on board the vehicle; and

e). An exhaust gas conduit in fluid communication with the treated exhaust gas stream outlet from the separation zone.

While the invention has been described and shown with particular reference to the preferred embodiment, it will be apparent that variations might be possible that would fall within the scope of the present invention.